Hong Kong Pacific Diabetes & Endocrine Centre


Hong Kong Pacific Diabetes
& Endocrine Centre

Types of Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune diesase associated with anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), islet cell, and insulin antibodies which destruct pancreatic β-cells, resulting in β-cell failure and insulin deficiency. Type 1 diabetes patients usually present at early age, in childhood or adolescent, with high blood glucose and ketone in urine. All type 1 diabetes patients require insulin for treatment.

Type 2 Diabetes
The underlying pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes is insulin resistance and insulin insufficiency. Commonly seen in obese adults. The disease progression is slow and patients may not have symptoms at early stage.

Gestational Diabetes.
During pregnancy, the body will potentially induces a state of insulin resistance due to an increased in level of growth hormone, progesterone, placental lactogen, and cortisol, which will lead to impaired glucose handling. Gestational diabetes will also have a increased risk of subsequent type 2 diabetes in 20-50% of patients.

Other causes of diabetes include genetic form of diabetes (eg MODY), diseases of exocrine pancreas or drug induced.