Hong Kong Pacific Diabetes & Endocrine Centre
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diabetes

Hong Kong Pacific Diabetes
& Endocrine Centre

Treatment of Diabetes

The management of diabetes is to achieve a close to normal blood glucose level as much as possible, and to have effective control of blood pressure and lipid level, in order to reduce the risk of long term diabetic complications. This should be achieved by proper diet management, exercise, oral anti-diabetic agent or insulin and medications for controlling blood pressure and lipid.

Diet management
Diet control does not mean diabetic patients have to eat bland, boring foods. Indeed they can have a variety of food based on a smart choosing of food. A registered dietitian can help to design a meal plan that fit one individual health goal and lifestyle.

There are several key component of diabetic diet management:
Create a varied and balanced diet. Eat similar amount of food with the same proportion of carbohydrates, proteins and fat at the same time every day.
Consume a modest amount of carbohydrates. Choose fiber-rich fruits, vegetables and whole grains often. Take low GI (Glycemic index) food instead.
Decrease saturated fats and trans fatty acid intake.
Avoid simple sugar, high sodium and fatty food.

Medications

Oral Anti-Diabetic Agent

Oral anti-diabetic medications lower blood glucose level in the blood. There are different classes of anti-diabetic agent characterised by their different mode of action. The selection of drugs depends on the nature of diabetes, patient’s background information and individual disease profile.

α-Glucosidase Inhibitors
Sulfonylureas
Meglitinides
Biguanides
Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Enzyme Inhibitors (DPP-IV inhibitors)
Thiazolidinediones

Insulin Therapy
Insulin is a naturally occuring hormone produced from the pancreas.  It will transport the blood glucose into the cells for producing energy or storage. Type 1 diabetes patients fail to produce insulin, while type 2 patients produce insulin but the cells throughout the body cannot respond normally to insulin. Insulin therapy is needed for  type 1 diabetes and some type 2 diabetes in order to overcome the resistance of the cells to insulin.

Insulin pump
Insulin pump is one of the insulin delivery device.
Insulin pump mimics the pancreas. It delivers insulin continuously to the body, 24-hours a day. Rapid acting insulin is delivered to the body via a very fine infusion cannula, inserted subcutaneously into the body.  This continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is able to achieve a better glycemic control.